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Format of articles Scientific Reports publishes original research in one format, Article.In most cases we do not impose strict limits on word count or page number.

We do, however, strongly encourage authors to write concisely and to adhere to the guidelines below How to get an report statistics Ph.D. MLA Premium A4 (British/European).We do, however, strongly encourage authors to write concisely and to adhere to the guidelines below.

Articles should ideally be no more than 11 typeset pages in length.As a guide, the main text (not including Abstract, Methods, References and figure legends) should be no more than 4,500 words best essay writing websites essay conclusion helper halimbawa ng essay tagalog essay corporal punishment service to others essay working for essayshark  .As a guide, the main text (not including Abstract, Methods, References and figure legends) should be no more than 4,500 words.The maximum Article title length is 20 words best essay writing websites essay conclusion helper halimbawa ng essay tagalog essay corporal punishment service to others essay working for essayshark  .The maximum Article title length is 20 words.The Abstract — which must be no more than 200 words long and contain no references — should serve both as a general introduction to the topic and as a brief, non-technical summary of the main results and their implications.

For the main body of the text, there are no explicit requirements for section organization.According to the authors' preference, the text may be organized as best suits the research.As a guideline and in the majority of cases, however, we recommend that you structure your manuscript as follows: Introduction Methods A specific order for the main body of the text is not compulsory and, in some cases, it may be appropriate to combine sections.Figure legends are limited to 350 words.

As a guideline references should be limited to 60 (this is not strictly enforced).

We suggest that Articles contain no more than 8 display items (figures and/or tables).In addition, a limited number of uncaptioned molecular structure graphics and numbered mathematical equations may be included if necessary.To enable typesetting of papers, the number of display items should be commensurate with the word length — we suggest that for Articles with less than 2,000 words, no more than 4 figures/tables should be included.Please note that schemes are not used and should be presented as figures.

Authors must provide a competing interests statement within the manuscript file.Submissions should include a cover letter, a manuscript text file, individual figure files and optional supplementary information files.not revised manuscripts), authors may incorporate the manuscript text and figures into a single file up to 3 MB in size; the figures may be inserted in the text at the appropriate positions, or grouped at the end.

Supplementary information should be combined and supplied as a single separate file, preferably in PDF format.The following file types can be uploaded for Article text: txt, doc, docx, tex, (pdf first submissions only )* *We are unable to accept PDF files for article text for revised manuscripts.A submission template is available in the Overleaf template gallery to help you prepare a LaTeX manuscript within the Scientific Reports formatting criteria.Scientific Reports is read by scientists from diverse backgrounds.In addition, many are not native English speakers.

Authors should, therefore, give careful thought to how their findings may be communicated clearly.Although a shared basic knowledge of science may be assumed, please bear in mind that the language and concepts that are standard in one field may be unfamiliar to non-specialists.Thus, technical jargon should be avoided and clearly explained where its use is unavoidable.Abbreviations, particularly those that are not standard, should also be kept to a minimum.Where unavoidable, abbreviations should be defined in the text or legends at their first occurrence, and abbreviations should be used thereafter.

The background, rationale and main conclusions of the study should be clearly explained.Titles and abstracts in particular should be written in language that will be readily intelligible to any scientist.We strongly recommend that authors ask a colleague with different expertise to review the manuscript before submission, in order to identify concepts and terminology that may present difficulties to non-specialist readers.The format requirements of Scientific Reports uses UK English spelling.Cover letter Authors should provide a cover letter that includes the affiliation and contact information for the corresponding author.

Authors should briefly explain why the work is considered appropriate for Scientific Reports.Authors are asked to suggest the names and contact information for scientific reviewers and they may request the exclusion of certain referees.Please ensure that your cover letter also includes suggestions for Editorial Board Members who would be able to handle your submission.Finally, authors should indicate whether they have had any prior discussions with a Scientific Reports Editorial Board Member about the work described in the manuscript.Format of manuscripts In most cases we do not impose strict limits on word counts and page numbers, but we encourage authors to write concisely and suggest authors adhere to the guidelines below.

For a definitive list of which limits are mandatory please visit the submission checklist page.Articles should be no more than 11 typeset pages in length.As a guide, the main text (not including Abstract, Methods, References and figure legends) should be no more than 4,500 words.The Abstract (without heading) - which must be no more than 200 words long and contain no references - should serve both as a general introduction to the topic and as a brief, non-technical summary of the main results and their implications.

The manuscript text file should include the following parts, in order: a title page with author affiliations and contact information (the corresponding author should be identified with an asterisk).The main text of an Article can be organised in different ways and according to the authors' preferences, it may be appropriate to combine sections.As a guideline, we recommend that sections include an Introduction of referenced text that expands on the background of the work.Some overlap with the Abstract is acceptable.This may then be followed by sections headed Results (with subheadings), Discussion (without subheadings) and Methods.

The main body of text must be followed by References, Acknowledgements (optional), Author Contributions (names must be given as initials), Additional Information (including a Competing Interests Statement), Figure Legends (these are limited to 350 words per figure) and Tables (maximum size of one page).not revised manuscripts), authors may choose to incorporate the manuscript text and figures into a single file up to 3 MB in size in either a Microsoft Word, LaTeX, or PDF format - the figures may be inserted within the text at the appropriate positions, or grouped at the end.

For revised manuscripts authors should provide all textual content in a single file, prepared using either Microsoft Word or LaTeX.We do not accept PDF files for article text for revised manuscripts.Figures should be provided as individual files.Supplementary Information should be combined and supplied as a separate file, preferably in PDF format.

The first page of the Supplementary Information file should include the title of the manuscript and the author list.

Authors who do not incorporate the manuscript text and figures into a single file should adhere to the following: all textual content should be provided in a single file, prepared using either Microsoft Word or LaTeX; figures should be provided as individual files.The manuscript file should be formatted as single-column text without justification.Pages should be numbered using an Arabic numeral in the footer of each page.Standard fonts are recommended and the 'symbols' font should be used for representing Greek characters.TeX/LaTeX - Authors submitting LaTeX files may use the standard ‘article’ document class (or similar) or may use the file and template provided by Overleaf.

Non-standard fonts should be avoided; please use the default Computer Modern fonts.For the inclusion of graphics, we recommend .Please use numerical references only for citations.If references are prepared using BibTeX (which is optional), please include the .bbl file with your submission (as a ‘related manuscript file’) in order for it to be processed correctly; this file is included automatically in the zip file generated by Overleaf for submissions.Please see this help article on Overleaf for more details.Alternatively ensure that the references (source code) are included within the manuscript file itself.As a final precaution, authors should ensure that the complete .

tex file compiles successfully on their own system with no errors or warnings, before submission.Manuscripts published in Scientific Reports are not subject to in-depth copy editing as part of the production process.Authors are responsible for procuring copy editing or language editing services for their manuscripts, either before submission, or at the revision stage, should they feel it would benefit their manuscript.Such services include those provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts.Scientific Reports authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services.

To claim 10% off English editing from Nature Research Editing Service, click here.To claim 10% off American Journal Experts, click here.Please note that the use of an editing service is at the author's own expense, and in no way implies that the article will be selected for peer-review or accepted for publication.Methods Where appropriate, we recommend that authors limit their Methods section to 1,500 words.Authors must ensure that their Methods section includes adequate experimental and characterization data necessary for others in the field to reproduce their work.

Descriptions of standard protocols and experimental procedures should be given.Commercial suppliers of reagents or instrumentation should be identified only when the source is critical to the outcome of the experiments.Experimental protocols that describe the synthesis of new compounds should be included.The systematic name of the compound and its bold Arabic numeral are used as the heading for the experimental protocol.

Thereafter, the compound is represented by its assigned bold numeral.Authors should describe the experimental protocol in detail, referring to amounts of reagents in parentheses, when possible (eg 1.Standard abbreviations for reagents and solvents are encouraged.

Safety hazards posed by reagents or protocols should be identified clearly.Isolated mass and percent yields should be reported at the end of each protocol.References References will not be copy edited by Scientific Reports.

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References will be linked electronically to external databases where possible, making correct formatting of the references essential.References should be numbered sequentially, first throughout the text, then in tables, followed by figures; that is, references that only appear in tables or figures should be last in the reference list.

Only one publication is given for each number 3 Aug 2017 - annual factual and statistical report.   market and to help us to quickly   licence fee allocation for radio and TV; prices) Post is addressed letter   1.3.4 Purchasing communications services in a bundle   3 Note: small base size of 40 is indicative rather than conclusive   share most online, say they edit..Only one publication is given for each number.

Only papers or datasets that have been published or accepted by a named publication, recognized preprint server or data repository should be in the numbered list; preprints of accepted papers in the reference list should be submitted with the manuscript.Published conference abstracts and numbered patents may be included in the reference list.Grant details and acknowledgements are not permitted as numbered references.bib) bibliography files cannot be accepted.LaTeX submission must either contain all references within the manuscripthelp me do a logistics term paper Custom writing Business College Freshman.LaTeX submission must either contain all references within the manuscript .tex file itself, or (for authors using the Overleaf template) can include the .

bbl file generated during the compilation process as a ‘related manuscript file’ (see the "Format of manuscripts" section for more details).

Scientific Reports uses standard Nature referencing style.All authors should be included in reference lists unless there are six or more, in which case only the first author should be given, followed by 'et al.Authors should be listed last name first, followed by a comma and initials (followed by full stops) of given names.Article and dataset titles should be in Roman text, only the first word of the title should have an initial capital and the title should be written exactly as it appears in the work cited, ending with a full stop.

Book titles should be given in italics and all words in the title should have initial capitals.Journal and data repository names are italicized and abbreviated (with full stops) according to common usage.Volume numbers and the subsequent comma appear in bold.The full page range should be given (or article number), where appropriate.Published papers: Printed journals Schott, D.

Secretory vesicle transport velocity in living cells depends on the myosin V lever arm length.

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements should be brief, and should not include thanks to anonymous referees and editors, or effusive comments.Grant or contribution numbers may be acknowledged.Assistance from medical writers, proof-readers and editors should also be acknowledged here.

Author contributions Scientific Reports requires an Author Contribution Statement as described in the Author responsibilities section of our Editorial and Publishing Policies.Competing interests A competing interests statement is required for all papers submitted to Scientific Reports.If there is no conflict of interest, a statement declaring this must still be included in the paper.The statement included in the article file must be explicit and unambiguous, describing any potential competing interest (or lack thereof) for EACH contributing author.Examples of declarations are: Competing interests Dr X's work has been funded by A.

He has received compensation as a member of the scientific advisory board of B and owns stock in the company.He also has consulted for C and received compensation.Dr Y and Dr Z declare no potential conflict of interest.Data availability Scientific Reports requires a Data Availability Statement to be included in the Methods section of submitted manuscripts (see 'Availability of materials and data' section for more information).Supplementary Information Any Supplementary Information should be submitted with the manuscript and will be sent to referees during peer review.

It is published online with accepted manuscripts.We request that authors avoid "data not shown" statements and instead make their data available via deposition in a public repository (see 'Availability of materials and data' for more information).Any data necessary to evaluation of the claims of the paper that are not available via a public depository should be provided as Supplementary Information.Supplementary Information is not edited, typeset or proofed, so authors should ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented at initial submission, and that the style and terminology conform to the rest of the paper.Authors should include the title of the manuscript and full author list on the first page.

The guidelines below detail the creation, citation and submission of Supplementary Information - publication may be delayed if these are not followed correctly.Please note that modification of Supplementary Information after the paper is published requires a formal correction, so authors are encouraged to check their Supplementary Information carefully before submitting the final version.Multiple pieces of Supplementary Information can be combined and supplied as a single file, or supplied separately (e.Designate each item as Supplementary Table, Figure, Video, Audio, Note, Data, Discussion, Equations or Methods, as appropriate.Number Supplementary Tables and Figures as, for example, "Supplementary Table S1".This numbering should be separate from that used in tables and figures appearing in the main article.

Supplementary Note or Methods should not be numbered; titles for these are optional.Refer to each piece of supplementary material at the appropriate point(s) in the main article.Be sure to include the word "Supplementary" each time one is mentioned.Please do not refer to individual panels of supplementary figures.

Use the following examples as a guide (note: abbreviate "Figure" as "Fig.

" when in the middle of a sentence): "Table 1 provides a selected subset of the most active compounds.The entire list of 96 compounds can be found as Supplementary Table S1 online." "The biosynthetic pathway of L-ascorbic acid in animals involves intermediates of the D-glucuronic acid pathway (see Supplementary Fig." Remember to include a brief title and legend (incorporated into the file to appear near the image) as part of every figure submitted, and a title as part of every table.File sizes should be as small as possible, with a maximum size of 50 MB, so that they can be downloaded quickly.Further queries about submission and preparation of Supplementary Information should be directed to email: @ .Figure legends Figure legends begin with a brief title sentence for the whole figure and continue with a short description of what is shown in each panel in sequence and the symbols used; methodological details should be minimised as much as possible.Each legend must total no more than 350 words.

Text for figure legends should be provided in numerical order after the references.Tables Please submit tables in your main article document in an editable format (Word or TeX/LaTeX, as appropriate), and not as images.Tables that include statistical analysis of data should describe their standards of error analysis and ranges in a table legend.Equations Equations and mathematical expressions should be provided in the main text of the paper.Equations that are referred to in the text are identified by parenthetical numbers, such as (1), and are referred to in the manuscript as "equation (1)".

docx format please ensure that all equations are provided in an editable Word format.These can be produced with the equation editor included in Microsoft Word.General figure guidelines Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to publish any figures or illustrations that are protected by copyright, including figures published elsewhere and pictures taken by professional photographers.

The journal cannot publish images downloaded from the internet without appropriate permission.Figures should be numbered separately with Arabic numerals in the order of occurrence in the text of the manuscript.When appropriate, figures should include error bars.A description of the statistical treatment of error analysis should be included in the figure legend.Please note that schemes are not used; sequences of chemical reactions or experimental procedures should be submitted as figures, with appropriate captions.

A limited number of uncaptioned graphics depicting chemical structures - each labelled with their name, by a defined abbreviation, or by the bold Arabic numeral - may be included in a manuscript.Figure lettering should be in a clear, sans-serif typeface (for example, Helvetica); the same typeface in the same font size should be used for all figures in a paper.All display items should be on a white background, and should avoid excessive boxing, unnecessary colour, spurious decorative effects (such as three-dimensional 'skyscraper' histograms) and highly pixelated computer drawings.The vertical axis of histograms should not be truncated to exaggerate small differences.

Labelling must be of sufficient size and contrast to be readable, even after appropriate reduction.The thinnest lines in the final figure should be no smaller than one point wide.Authors will see a proof that will include figures.Figures divided into parts should be labelled with a lower-case bold a, b, and so on, in the same type size as used elsewhere in the figure.Lettering in figures should be in lower-case type, with only the first letter of each label capitalized.

Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and follow SI nomenclature (for example, ms rather than msec) or the nomenclature common to a particular field.Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000).Unusual units or abbreviations should be spelled out in full or defined in the legend.Scale bars should be used rather than magnification factors, with the length of the bar defined on the bar itself rather than in the legend.In legends, please use visual cues rather than verbal explanations such as "open red triangles".

Unnecessary figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text instead.Figures should not contain more than one panel unless the parts are logically connected; each panel of a multipart figure should be sized so that the whole figure can be reduced by the same amount and reproduced at the smallest size at which essential details are visible.Figures for peer review At the initial submission stage authors may choose to upload separate figure files or to incorporate figures into the main article file, ensuring that any inserted figures are of sufficient quality to be clearly legible.When submitting a revised manuscript all figures must be uploaded as separate figure files ensuring that the image quality and formatting conforms to the specifications below.

Formatting guide nature

Figures for publication Each complete figure must be supplied as a separate file upload.

Multi-part/panel figures must be prepared and arranged as a single image file (including all sub-parts; a, b, c, etc.Please do not upload each panel individually Scientific Reports publishes original research in one format, Article.   provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts..Please do not upload each panel individually.

Please read the digital images integrity and standards section of our Editorial and Publishing Policies.

When possible, we prefer to use original digital figures to ensure the highest-quality reproduction in the journal.

When creating and submitting digital files, please follow the guidelines below.Failure to do so, or to adhere to the following guidelines, can significantly delay publication of your work.Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to publish any figures or illustrations that are protected by copyright, including figures published elsewhere and pictures taken by professional photographers nvcbn.com/research-proposal/need-to-purchase-a-college-anthropology-research-proposal-one-day-college-vancouver.Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to publish any figures or illustrations that are protected by copyright, including figures published elsewhere and pictures taken by professional photographers.The journal cannot publish images downloaded from the internet without appropriate permission.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Line art, graphs, charts and schematics For optimal results, all line art, graphs, charts and schematics should be supplied in vector format, such as EPS or AI, and should be saved or exported as such directly from the application in which they were made.Please ensure that data points and axis labels are clearly legible.Photographic and bitmap images All photographic and bitmap images should be supplied in a bitmap image format such as tiff, jpg, or psd.

If saving tiff files, please ensure that the compression option is selected to avoid very large file sizes.Please do not supply Word or Powerpoint files with placed images.Images can be supplied as RGB or CMYK (note: we will not convert image colour modes).Figures that do not meet these standards will not reproduce well and may delay publication until we receive high-resolution images.Chemical structures Chemical structures should be produced using ChemDraw or a similar program.All chemical compounds must be assigned a bold, Arabic numeral in the order in which the compounds are presented in the manuscript text.Structures should then be exported into a 300 dpi RGB tiff file before being submitted.Stereo images Stereo diagrams should be presented for divergent 'wall-eyed' viewing, with the two panels separated by 5.

In the final accepted version of the manuscript, the stereo images should be submitted at their final page size.Statistical guidelines Every article that contains statistical testing should state the name of the statistical test, the n value for each statistical analysis, the comparisons of interest, a justification for the use of that test (including, for example, a discussion of the normality of the data when the test is appropriate only for normal data), the alpha level for all tests, whether the tests were one-tailed or two-tailed, and the actual P value for each test (not merely "significant" or "P < 0.It should be clear what statistical test was used to generate every P value.

Use of the word "significant" should always be accompanied by a P value; otherwise, use "substantial," "considerable," etc.Data sets should be summarized with descriptive statistics, which should include the n value for each data set, a clearly labelled measure of centre (such as the mean or the median), and a clearly labelled measure of variability (such as standard deviation or range).Ranges are more appropriate than standard deviations or standard errors for small data sets.Graphs should include clearly labelled error bars.Authors must state whether a number that follows the ± sign is a standard error (s.

Authors must justify the use of a particular test and explain whether their data conform to the assumptions of the tests.Three errors are particularly common: Multiple comparisons: When making multiple statistical comparisons on a single data set, authors should explain how they adjusted the alpha level to avoid an inflated Type I error rate, or they should select statistical tests appropriate for multiple groups (such as ANOVA rather than a series of t-tests).Normal distribution: Many statistical tests require that the data be approximately normally distributed; when using these tests, authors should explain how they tested their data for normality.If the data do not meet the assumptions of the test, then a non-parametric alternative should be used instead.Small sample size: When the sample size is small (less than about 10), authors should use tests appropriate to small samples or justify their use of large-sample tests.

There is a checklist available to help authors minimize the chance of statistical errors.Chemical and biological nomenclature and abbreviations Molecular structures are identified by bold, Arabic numerals assigned in order of presentation in the text.Once identified in the main text or a figure, compounds may be referred to by their name, by a defined abbreviation, or by the bold Arabic numeral (as long as the compound is referred to consistently as one of these three).When possible, authors should refer to chemical compounds and biomolecules using systematic nomenclature, preferably using IUPAC.Standard chemical and biological abbreviations should be used.

Unconventional or specialist abbreviations should be defined at their first occurrence in the text.Gene nomenclature Authors should use approved nomenclature for gene symbols, and use symbols rather than italicized full names (for example Ttn, not titin).Please consult the appropriate nomenclature databases for correct gene names and symbols.Approved human gene symbols are provided by HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), e-mail: [email protected] ; see also .

Approved mouse symbols are provided by The Jackson Laboratory, e-mail: [email protected] ; see also /mgihome/nomen.For proposed gene names that are not already approved, please submit the gene symbols to the appropriate nomenclature committees as soon as possible, as these must be deposited and approved before publication of an article.Avoid listing multiple names of genes (or proteins) separated by a slash, as in 'Oct4/Pou5f1', as this is ambiguous (it could mean a ratio, a complex, alternative names or different subunits).Use one name throughout and include the other at first mention: 'Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1)'.Characterization of chemical and biomolecular materials Scientific Reports is committed to publishing technically sound research.

Manuscripts submitted to the journal will be held to rigorous standards with respect to experimental methods and characterization of new compounds.Authors must provide adequate data to support their assignment of identity and purity for each new compound described in the manuscript.Authors should provide a statement confirming the source, identity and purity of known compounds that are central to the scientific study, even if they are purchased or resynthesized using published methods.Chemical identity Chemical identity for organic and organometallic compounds should be established through spectroscopic analysis.

Standard peak listings (see formatting guidelines below) for 1H NMR and proton-decoupled 13C NMR should be provided for all new compounds.Other NMR data should be reported (31P NMR, 19F NMR, etc.For new materials, authors should also provide mass spectral data to support molecular weight identity.High-resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data are preferred.

UV or IR spectral data may be reported for the identification of characteristic functional groups, when appropriate.Melting-point ranges should be provided for crystalline materials.Specific rotations may be reported for chiral compounds.Authors should provide references, rather than detailed procedures, for known compounds, unless their protocols represent a departure from or improvement on published methods.Combinational compound libraries Authors describing the preparation of combinatorial libraries should include standard characterization data for a diverse panel of library components.Biomolecular identity For new biopolymeric materials (oligosaccharides, peptides, nucleic acids, etc.), direct structural analysis by NMR spectroscopic methods may not be possible.In these cases, authors must provide evidence of identity based on sequence (when appropriate) and mass spectral characterization.

Biological constructs Authors should provide sequencing or functional data that validates the identity of their biological constructs (plasmids, fusion proteins, site-directed mutants, etc.) either in the manuscript text or the Methods section, as appropriate.Sample purity Evidence of sample purity is requested for each new compound.

Methods for purity analysis depend on the compound class.For most organic and organometallic compounds, purity may be demonstrated by high-field 1H NMR or 13C NMR data, although elemental analysis (±0.Quantitative analytical methods including chromatographic (GC, HPLC, etc.) or electrophoretic analyses may be used to demonstrate purity for small molecules and polymeric materials.

Spectral data Detailed spectral data for new compounds should be provided in list form (see below) in the Methods section.Figures containing spectra generally will not be published as a manuscript figure unless the data are directly relevant to the central conclusions of the paper.Authors are encouraged to include high-quality images of spectral data for key compounds in the Supplementary Information.Specific NMR assignments should be listed after integration values only if they were unambiguously determined by multidimensional NMR or decoupling experiments.

Authors should provide information about how assignments were made in a general Methods section.Example format for compound characterization data.ref 99-101 °C); TLC (CHCl 3:MeOH, 98:2 v/v): R f = 0.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3): 165.1; IR (Nujol): 1765 cm- 1; UV/Vis: + calcd.

Crystallographic data for small molecules Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a .cif file and a structural figure with probability ellipsoids for publication as Supplementary Information.These must have been checked using the IUCR's CheckCIF routine, and a PDF copy of the output must be included with the submission, together with a justification for any alerts reported.Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Structural Database and the deposition number referenced appropriately in the manuscript.

Full access must be provided on publication.Macromolecular structural data Manuscripts reporting new structures should contain a table summarizing structural and refinement statistics.Templates are available for such tables describing NMR and X-ray crystallography data.To facilitate assessment of the quality of the structural data, a stereo image of a portion of the electron density map (for crystallography papers) or of the superimposed lowest energy structures (≳10; for NMR papers) should be provided with the submitted manuscript.

Submission guidelines scientific reports nature

If the reported structure represents a novel overall fold, a stereo image of the entire structure (as a backbone trace) should also be provided.Nature publishes other submitted material as detailed below.Articles Articles are original reports whose conclusions represent a substantial advance in understanding of an important problem and have immediate, far-reaching implications Authors must not submit their paper to more than one editor.   Authors are requested to submit their manuscripts via the PHYSA online   confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.   Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted,  .Articles Articles are original reports whose conclusions represent a substantial advance in understanding of an important problem and have immediate, far-reaching implications.

They do not normally exceed 5 pages of Nature and, as a guideline, allow up to 50 references.(One page of undiluted text is about 1,300 words.

) Articles have a summary, separate from the main text, of up to 150 words, which does not have references, and does not contain numbers, abbreviations, acronyms or measurements unless essential The Communications Market Report 2017 UK Ofcom.) Articles have a summary, separate from the main text, of up to 150 words, which does not have references, and does not contain numbers, abbreviations, acronyms or measurements unless essential.It is aimed at readers outside the discipline.This summary contains a paragraph (2-3 sentences) of basic-level introduction to the field; a brief account of the background and rationale of the work; a statement of the main conclusions (introduced by the phrase 'Here we show' or its equivalent); and finally, 2-3 sentences putting the main findings into general context so it is clear how the results described in the paper have moved the field forwards.Articles are typically 3,000 words of text, beginning with up to 500 words of referenced text expanding on the background to the work (some overlap with the summary is acceptable), before proceeding to a concise, focused account of the findings, ending with one or two short paragraphs of discussion.The text may contain a few short subheadings (not more than six in total) of no more than 40 characters each (less than one line of text in length).

Articles typically have 5 or 6 display items (figures or tables).Letters Letters are short reports of original research focused on an outstanding finding whose importance means that it will be of interest to scientists in other fields.They do not normally exceed 4 pages of Nature and, as a guideline, allow up to 30 references.They begin with a fully referenced paragraph, ideally of about 200 words, but certainly no more than 300 words, aimed at readers in other disciplines.This paragraph starts with a 2-3 sentence basic introduction to the field; followed by a one-sentence statement of the main conclusions starting 'Here we show' or equivalent phrase; and finally, 2-3 sentences putting the main findings into general context so it is clear how the results described in the paper have moved the field forwards.

Please refer to our annotated example to see how the summary paragraph for a Letter should be constructed.The rest of the text is typically about 1,500 words long.Any discussion at the end of the text should be as succinct as possible, not repeating previous summary/introduction material, to briefly convey the general relevance of the work.Letters typically have 3 or 4 small display items (figures or tables).

Word counts refer to the text of the paper.

References, title, author list and acknowledgements do not have to be included in total word counts.Brief Communications Arising and Corrections Brief Communications Arising are exceptionally interesting or important comments and clarifications on original research papers or other peer-reviewed material published in Nature.They are published online but not in print.For further details of and instructions for how to submit a correction to peer-reviewed material published in Nature, please access our Brief Communications Arising section.Other contributions to Nature Please access the other submitted material pages for further details on any of the contribution types below: News and Commentfor an explanation of Nature's editorial criteria for publication, refereeing policy and how editors handle papers after submission.

Submission to a Nature journal is taken by the journal to mean that all the listed authors have agreed all of the contents.Presubmission enquiries If you wish to enquire whether your Article or Letter might be suitable for consideration by Nature, please use our online presubmission enquiry service.All presubmission enquiries must include a cover paragraph to the editor stating the interest to a broad scientific readership, a fully referenced summary paragraph in the style for Letters to Nature, and a reference list.Readability Nature is an international journal covering all the sciences.

Contributions should therefore be written clearly and simply so that they are accessible to readers in other disciplines and to readers for whom English is not their first language.Thus, technical jargon should be avoided as far as possible and clearly explained where its use is unavoidable.Abbreviations, particularly those that are not standard, should also be kept to a minimum.The background, rationale and main conclusions of the study should be clearly explained.Titles and abstracts in particular should be written in language that will be readily intelligible to any scientist.

Essential but specialized terms should be explained concisely but not didactically.For gene, protein and other specialized names authors can use their preferred terminology so long as it is in current use by the community, but they must give all known names for the entity at first use in the paper.Nature prefers authors to use internationally agreed nomenclature; details are provided in our author policies.Please also note the special circumstances about online publication of formal descriptions of new species.Even though no paper will be rejected for poor language, non–native English speakers occasionally receive feedback from editors and reviewers regarding language and grammar usage in their manuscripts.

You may wish to consider asking a colleague whose native language is English to read your manuscript and/or to use a professional editing service such as those provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service or American Journal Experts.Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in Nature.Nature's editors provide detailed advice about format before contributions are formally accepted for publication.Nature's editors often suggest revised titles and rewrite the summaries of Articles and first paragraphs of Letters so the conclusions are clear to a broad readership.After acceptance, Nature's subeditors (copyeditors) ensure that the text and figures are readable and clear to those outside the field, and edit papers into Nature's house style.

They pay particular attention to summary paragraphs, overall clarity, figures, figure legends and titles.Proofs are sent before publication; authors are welcome to discuss proposed changes with Nature's subeditors, but Nature reserves the right to make the final decision about matters of style and the size of figures.A useful set of articles providing general advice about writing and submitting scientific papers can be found in 's "How do I?" section.Format of Articles and Letters Contributions should be double-spaced and written in English (spellings as in the Oxford English Dictionary) Contributions should be organized in the sequence: title, text, methods, references, Supplementary Information line (if any), acknowledgements, author contributions, author information (containing data deposition statement, competing interest declaration and corresponding author line), tables, figure legends.In order to facilitate the review process, for initial submissions we encourage authors to incorporate the manuscript text and figures together in a single file (Microsoft Word or PDF, up to 30 MB in size).

The figures may be inserted within the text at the appropriate positions or grouped at the end, and each figure legend should be presented together with its figure.Also, please include line numbers within the text.Titles Titles do not exceed two lines in print.This equates to 90 characters (including spaces) for Letters, or 75 characters (including spaces) for Articles.Titles do not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation.

They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about.Text Articles should fill no more than 5 pages, and Letters no more than 4 pages, of Nature.An uninterrupted page of text contains about 1,300 words.A typical Article contains about 3,000 words of text and, additionally, five small display items (figures and/or tables) with brief legends, reference list and methods section if applicable.A typical Letter to Nature contains about 1,500 words of text (excluding the first paragraph of Letters, figure legends, reference list and the methods section if applicable) and four small display items (figures and/or tables) with brief legends.

A composite figure (with several panels) usually needs to take about half a page, equivalent to about 600 words, in order for all the elements to be visible (see section 5.When submitting new or revised manuscripts, authors should state in a cover letter to the editor their rough estimate of the length of their paper in terms of number of pages of Nature.Authors of contributions that significantly exceed the limits stated here or specified by the editor will have to shorten their papers before acceptance, inevitably delaying publication.Nature requires authors to specify the contribution made by their co-authors in the end notes of the paper (see section 5.

If authors regard it as essential to indicate that two or more co-authors are equal in status, they may be identified by an asterisk symbol with the caption ‘These authors contributed equally to this work’ immediately under the address list.If more than three co-authors are equal in status, this should be indicated in the author contributions statement.Present addresses appear immediately below the author list (below the footnote rule at the bottom of the first page) and may be identified by a dagger symbol; all other essential author-related explanation is in the acknowledgements.

Our preferred format for text is Microsoft Word, with the style tags removed.

TeX/LaTeX: If you have prepared your paper using TeX/LaTeX, we will need to convert this to Word after acceptance, before your paper in typeset.All textual material of the paper (including references, tables, figure captions, online methods, etc.We prefer the use of a ‘standard’ font, preferably 12-point Times New Roman.

For mathematical symbols, Greek letters and other special characters, use normal text or Symbol font.Word Equation Editor/MathType should be used only for formulae that cannot be produced using normal text or Symbol font.Methods The author should include ‘Methods’ section at the end of the text, following the figure legends.This Methods section will appear in the online PDF and in the full-text (HTML) version of the paper online, but will not appear in the printed issue.The Methods section should be written as concisely as possible but should contain all elements necessary to allow interpretation and replication of the results.

As a guideline, Methods sections typically do not exceed 3,000 words.Authors can deposit the step-by-step protocols used in their study to Protocol Exchange, an open resource maintained by Nature Research.Protocols deposited by the authors will be linked to the Online Methods section upon publication.Detailed descriptions of methods already published should be avoided; a reference number can be provided to save space, with any new addition or variation stated.The Methods section should be subdivided by short bold headings referring to methods used and we encourage the inclusion of specific subsections for statistics, reagents and animal models.

If further references are included in this section, the numbering should continue from the end of the last reference number in the rest of the paper and the list should accompany the additional Methods at the end of the paper.Please provide a Data Availability statement in the Methods section under “Data Availability”; detailed guidance can be found in our data availability and data citations policy.Certain data types must be deposited in an appropriate public structured data depository (details are available here), and the accession number(s) provided in the manuscript.Should full access to data be required for peer review, authors must provide it.

The Methods section cannot contain figures or tables (essential display items should be included in the Extended Data).References References are each numbered, ordered sequentially as they appear in the text, tables, boxes, figure legends, online-only methods, Extended Data tables and Extended Data figure legends.When cited in the text, reference numbers are superscript, not in brackets unless they are likely to be confused with a superscript number.Do not use linked fields (produced by EndNote and similar programs).

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Please use the one-click button provided by EndNote to remove EndNote codes before saving your file.

As a guideline, Articles allow up to 50 references and Letters allow up to 30 references.Only one publication can be listed for each number .Only one publication can be listed for each number.

Only articles that have been published or accepted by a named publication, or that have been uploaded to a recognized preprint server (for example, arXiv, bioRxiv), should be in the reference list; papers in preparation should be mentioned in the text with a list of authors (or initials if any of the authors are co-authors of the present contribution).Published conference abstracts, numbered patents, preprints on recognized servers (preprints of accepted papers in the reference list should be submitted with the manuscript) and research datasets that have been assigned a digital object identifier may be included in reference lists, but text, grant details and acknowledgements may not Essay structure in english Tomahawk Restaurant.Published conference abstracts, numbered patents, preprints on recognized servers (preprints of accepted papers in the reference list should be submitted with the manuscript) and research datasets that have been assigned a digital object identifier may be included in reference lists, but text, grant details and acknowledgements may not.(An exception is the highlighted references which we ask authors of Reviews, Perspectives and Insights articles to provide.

) All authors should be included in reference lists unless there are more than five, in which case only the first author should be given, followed by ‘et al.Please follow the style below in the published edition of Nature in preparing reference lists.Authors should be listed surname first, followed by a comma and initials of given names.Titles of all cited articles are required.

Titles of articles cited in reference lists should be in upright, not italic text; the first word of the title is capitalized, the title written exactly as it appears in the work cited, ending with a full stop.Book titles are italic with all main words capitalized.Journal titles are italic and abbreviated according to common usage.The publisher and city of publication are required for books cited.

(Refer to published papers in Nature for details.) Research datasets may be cited in the reference list if they have been assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) and include authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier (DOI expressed as a URL).Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) data sets.Recognized preprints may be cited in the reference list.Quantum scissors: teleportation of single-mode optical states by means of a nonlocal single photon.References to web-only journals should give authors, article title and journal name as above, followed by URL in full - or DOI if known - and the year of publication in parentheses.References to websites should give authors if known, title of cited page, URL in full, and year of posting in parentheses.

End notes End notes are brief and follow the reference list.Please refer to our annotated example to see how they appear in a Nature paper.Supplementary Information is linked to the online version of the paper at /nature.Acknowledgements should be brief, and should not include thanks to anonymous referees and editors, inessential words, or effusive comments.A person can be thanked for assistance, not “excellent” assistance, or for comments, not “insightful” comments, for example.

Acknowledgements can contain grant and contribution numbers.Author Contributions: authors are required to include a statement to specify the contributions of each co-author.The statement can be up to several sentences long, describing the tasks of individual authors referred to by their initials.See the authorship policy page for further explanation and examples.Author Information: Authors should include a set of statements at the end of the paper, in the following order: A sentence reading “Reprints and permissions information is available at /reprints”.

A sentence reading "Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to XX”, where XX refers to one e-mail address.Nature expects this identified author to respond to readers’ enquiries and requests for materials, and to coordinate the handling of any other matters arising from the published contribution, including corrections complaints.The author named as corresponding author is not necessarily the senior author, and publication of this author’s name does not imply seniority.Authors may include more than one e-mail address if essential, in which event Nature will communicate with the first-listed address for any post-publication matters arising, and expect that author to coordinate with the other co-authors.Life sciences and behavioural & social sciences reporting guidelines To improve the transparency of reporting and the reproducibility of published results, authors of life sciences and behavioural & social sciences research articles must provide a completed reporting summary that will be made available to editors and reviewers during manuscript assessment.

The reporting summary will be published with all accepted manuscripts.Please note: because of the advanced features used in these forms, you must use Adobe Reader to open the documents and fill them out.Guidance and resources related to the use and reporting of statistics are available here.Tables Tables should each be presented on a separate page, portrait (not landscape) orientation, and upright on the page, not sideways.Tables have a short, one-line title in bold text.

Bear in mind the size of a Nature page as a limiting factor when compiling a table.Symbols and abbreviations are defined immediately below the table, followed by essential descriptive material as briefly as possible, all in double-spaced text.Standard table formats are available for submissions of cryo-EM, NMR and X-ray crystallography data.Authors providing these data should use these standard tables for inclusion as Extended Data tables.

Figure legends For initial submissions, we encourage authors to incorporate the manuscript text and figures together in a single Word doc or PDF file, and for each figure legend to be presented together with its figure.However, if a paper is accepted, we require figure legends to be listed one after the other, as part of the text document, separate from the figure files.Each figure legend should begin with a brief title for the whole figure and continue with a short description of each panel and the symbols used.For contributions with methods sections, legends should not contain any details of methods, or exceed 100 words (fewer than 500 words in total for the whole paper).In contributions without methods sections, legends should be fewer than 300 words (800 words or fewer in total for the whole paper).

All error bars must be defined in the figure legend, as discussed above.Figures Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity.The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper.Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text instead.Avoid unnecessary complexity, colouring and excessive detail.

Figures should not contain more than one panel unless the parts are logically connected; each panel of a multipart figure should be sized so that the whole figure can be reduced by the same amount and reproduced on the printed page at the smallest size at which essential details are visible.For guidance, Nature’s standard figure sizes are 89 mm (single column) and 183 mm (double column) and the full depth of the page is 247 mm.Amino-acid sequences should be printed in Courier (or other monospaced) font using the one-letter code in lines of 50 or 100 characters.Some brief guidance for figure preparation: Lettering in figures (labelling of axes and so on) should be in lower-case type, with the first letter capitalized and no full stop.

Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and follow SI nomenclature or the nomenclature common to a particular field.

Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000).Unusual units or abbreviations are defined in the legend.Scale bars should be used rather than magnification factors.Layering type directly over shaded or textured areas and using reversed type (white lettering on a coloured background) should be avoided where possible.Where possible, text, including keys to symbols, should be provided in the legend rather than on the figure itself.

Figure quality At initial submission, figures should be at good enough quality to be assessed by referees, preferably incorporated with the manuscript text in a single Word doc or PDF, although figures can be supplied separately as JPEGs if authors are unable to include them with the text.Authors are advised to follow the initial and revised submissions guidelineswith respect to sizing, resolution and labelling.Please note that print-publication quality figures are large and it is not helpful to upload them at the submission stage.Even if they will upload onto the Nature submissions site, many referees’ institutions have e-mail systems that will not accept large attachments.Authors will be asked for high-quality figures at the time of acceptance of their article for publication, so it is not necessary to send them at the submission stage.

Third party rights Nature discourages the use or adaptation of previously published display items (for example, figures, tables, images, videos or text boxes).However, we recognize that to illustrate some concepts the use of published data is required and the reuse of previously published display items may be necessary.Please note that in these instances we might not be able to obtain the necessary rights for some images to be re-used (as is, or adapted versions) in our articles.In such cases, we will contact you to discuss the sourcing of alternative material.Figure costs A contribution towards the total cost of reproduction of colour figures is requested.

We currently charge £877 for the first colour figure and £313 for each additional figure.Inability to pay this charge will not prevent publication of colour figures judged essential by the editors, but this must be agreed with the editor prior to acceptance.Production-quality figures When a manuscript is accepted in principle for publication, the editor will ask for high-resolution figures.Do not submit publication-quality figures until asked to do so by an editor.At that stage, please prepare figures according to these guidelines.

Extended Data Extended Data figures and tables are online-only (appearing in the online PDF and full-text HTML version of the paper), peer-reviewed display items that provide essential background to the Article or Letter but are not included in the printed version of the paper due to space constraints or being of interest only to a few specialists.A maximum of ten Extended Data display items (figures and tables) is permitted.See Composition of a Nature research paper.Extended Data tables should be formatted along similar lines to tables appearing in print (see section 5.7) but the main body (excluding title and legend, which should be included at the end of the Word file) should be submitted separately as an image rather than as an editable format in Word, as Extended Data tables are not edited by Nature’s subediting department.

Small tables may also be included as sub-panels within Extended Data figures.Extended Data figures should be prepared along slightly different guidelines compared to figures appearing in print, and may be multi-panelled as long as they fit to size rules (see Extended Data Formatting Guide).Extended Data figures are not edited or styled by Nature’s art department; for this reason, authors are requested to follow Nature style as closely as possible when preparing these figures.

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The legends for Extended Data figures should be prepared as for print figures and should be listed one after the other at the end of the Word file.

If space allows, Nature encourages authors to include a simple schematic, as a panel in an Extended Data figure, that summarizes the main finding of the paper, where appropriate (for example, to assist understanding of complex detail in cell, structural and molecular biology disciplines).If a manuscript has Extended Data figures or tables, authors are asked to refer to discrete items at an appropriate place in the main text (for example, Extended Data Fig The Editors of British Journal of Anaesthesia reserve the right to use plagiarism detection   To be of value appropriate for publication a case report must provide a   of the manuscript and the authors must state this in their submission letter.   The manuscript has to be rewritten to fit the BJA style and size limit of 5000 words..If a manuscript has Extended Data figures or tables, authors are asked to refer to discrete items at an appropriate place in the main text (for example, Extended Data Fig.

If further references are included in the Extended Data tables and Extended Data figure legends, the numbering should continue from the end of the last reference number in the main paper (or from the last reference number in the additional Methods section if present) and the list should be added to the end of the list accompanying the additional Methods section, if present, or added below the Extended Data legends if no additional Methods section is present.Supplementary Information Supplementary Information (SI) is online-only, peer-reviewed material that is essential background to the Article or Letter (for example, large data sets, methods, calculations), but which is too large or impractical, or of interest only to a few specialists, to justify inclusion in the printed version of the paper.

See the Supplementary Information page for further details.Supplementary Information should not contain figures (any figures additional to those appearing in print should be formatted as Extended Data figures).Tables may be included in Supplementary Information, but only if they are unsuitable for formatting as Extended Data tables (for example, tables containing large data sets or raw data that are best suited to Excel files).If a manuscript has accompanying SI, either at submission or in response to an editor’s letter that requests it, authors are asked to refer to discrete items of the SI (for example, videos, tables) at an appropriate point in the main manuscript.Chemical structures and characterization of chemical materials For guidelines describing Nature’s standards for experimental methods and the characterization of new compounds, please see the information sheet on the characterization of chemical materials.

We aim to produce chemical structures in a consistent format throughout our articles.Please use the Nature Research Chemical Structures Guide and ChemDraw template to ensure that you prepare your figures in a format that will require minimal changes by our art and production teams.Submission All contributions should be submitted online, unless otherwise instructed by the editors.

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Other Nature Research journals An account of the relationship between all the Nature journals is provided at the Nature family page.Your Paper Your Way We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions.You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process.Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

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Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.Ensure that the following items are present: One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: • E-mail address • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet) • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements For further information, visit our Support Center.Ethics in publishing Declaration of interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1.

A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind).If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'.This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records.

It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.Submission declaration and verification Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy.

on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).Changes to authorship Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission.Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor.

To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted.While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended.If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service.This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those.If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat.Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal.Copyright Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this).An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions.Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations.If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.

Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information).Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work.

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We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information.Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period.This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications.Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public.This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

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Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services) Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop Write me an statistics report for me single spaced Standard Business American.Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files.The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication Letters are short reports of original research focused on an outstanding finding   your Article or Letter might be suitable for consideration by Nature, please use our online   Even though no paper will be rejected for poor language, non–native   by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service or American Journal Experts.., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication.All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail should i buy a college leadership studies thesis proposal 51 pages / 14025 words Senior Academic.All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.Referees Please submit, with the manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of 5 potential referees.Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

NEW SUBMISSIONS Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files.The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process.This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript.It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing.

If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission.Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.References There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission.References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent.

Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present.

The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage.Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.Formatting requirements There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.

Divide the article into clearly defined sections.Figures and tables embedded in text Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.Peer review This journal operates a single blind review process.All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal.

Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper.The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles.More information on types of peer review.REVISED SUBMISSIONS Use of word processing software Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article.

Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article.The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier).See also the section on Electronic artwork.To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

LaTeX You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX to generate your bibliography.Our LaTeX site has detailed submission instructions, templates and other information.Article structure Subdivision - numbered sections Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections.(the abstract is not included in section numbering).Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'.Any subsection may be given a brief heading.Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

COVER LETTER AND HIGHLIGHTS Cover letter MUST address the following items: 1- Explain (in 3 to 5 sentences) why this work is an advance of sufficient significance to warrant publication in an international research journal.2- Why you consider Physica A is suited for this publication.3- Confirm that all the co-authors have agreed with the present submitted version.4- Confirm that any figure or text taken from another paper is clearly indicated with the full source and permission of the authors of said source.5- Highlights Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings and provide readers with a quick textual overview of the article.

These three to five bullet points describe the essence of the research (e.results or conclusions) and highlight what is distinctive about it.Highlights will be displayed in online search result lists; the contents list and in the online article, but will not (yet) appear in the article PDF file or print.Preparing your highlights, please adhere to the specifications below • Include 3 to 5 highlights.

• There should be a maximum of 85 characters, including spaces, per highlight.• Only the core results of the paper should be covered To see few examples on published Highlights in different journals please visit /authors/highlights Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.Theory/calculation A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work.In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results Discussion This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.

A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate.Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.Conclusions The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc.Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq.

Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.Essential title page information • Title.Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems.Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled.You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration.Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names.Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.

Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication.This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials.Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name.The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address.Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required.

The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions.An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s).Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of').

Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.Acknowledgements Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.

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, providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.Formatting of funding sources List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant numbers xxxx, yyyy ; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA grant number zzzz ; and the United States Institutes of Peace grant number aaaa .It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards Academic cover letters 10 top tips Higher Education Network The nbsp.

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards.

When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Units Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI).If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI write my consumer sciences presentation A4 (British/European) 106 pages / 29150 words Academic.If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.Math formulae Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images write my consumer sciences presentation A4 (British/European) 106 pages / 29150 words Academic.Math formulae Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images.Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.

In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly.Number them consecutively throughout the article.Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used.Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.Electronic artwork • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.

• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.

• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.Formats Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings.Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.

TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.Please do not: • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.

• Supply files that are too low in resolution.• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution.If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article.Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only.Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption.

A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration.Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.Tables Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end.Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body.

Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.References Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full.

Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.

If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'.Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.Reference links Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited.In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct.Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation.

When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors.A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online.A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article.An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.

Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela.

Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed.Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.

Web references can be listed separately (e., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.

Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier.Add dataset immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference.The dataset identifier will not appear in your published article.References in a special issue Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.Reference management software Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products.

These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote.Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style.If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript.More information on how to remove field codes.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link: Reference formatting There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission.References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent.Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present.The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage.

Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples: Reference style Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text.The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.Barnaby and Jones 8 obtained a different result .' List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.Examples: Reference to a journal publication: 1 J.Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J.Reference to a book: Reference to a chapter in an edited book: 3 G.Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.

University of oxford style guide

), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc.Reference to a website: 4 Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK.

/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/, 2003 (accessed 13 March 2003) 28 Nov 2013 - Letters bundle. How can you make your academic covering letter stand out?   Instead, approach your cover letter as a short essay. It needs to  ./aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/, 2003 (accessed 13 March 2003).

Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015.Journal abbreviations source Video Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research (www.ox.ac.uk/styleguide) whether anything has changed as well as   Do not use a capital letter unless it is absolutely required.   'Multiplicity of data in trial reports and the reliability of meta-analyses:   She was the first person from her school to get a place at Oxford.   Those of us who toil in the Groves of Academe..

Journal abbreviations source Video Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research.

Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article (www.ox.ac.uk/styleguide) whether anything has changed as well as   Do not use a capital letter unless it is absolutely required.   'Multiplicity of data in trial reports and the reliability of meta-analyses:   She was the first person from her school to get a place at Oxford.   Those of us who toil in the Groves of Academe..Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article.This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed.All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content.In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total.

Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect.Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image.These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data.For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages.Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

AudioSlides The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article.AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect.This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about.More information and examples are available.

Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Data visualization Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research.Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.Supplementary material Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it.Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online).Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file.

If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file.Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version.Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.Research data This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles.Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings.

To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript.If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list.Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation.For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset.Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system.For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).Mendeley Data This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository.

Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data.Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file.The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.Data in Brief You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data.Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication.

You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript.If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief.Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief.Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website.Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.

MethodsX You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods.Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work.MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible.Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript.If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed.

Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX.Full details can be found on the MethodsX website.Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.Data statement To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission.This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution.

If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential.The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect.For more information, visit the Data Statement page.Online proof correction Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online.

The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor.

Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version.All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately.Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures.

Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication.Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed.Proofreading is solely your responsibility.Offprints The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect.

The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media.For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication.Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop.Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need.

Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.